By Robert C. Galgano
Feast of Souls explores local peoples' responses to Spanish makes an attempt to problem and exchange conventional non secular practices in Florida and New Mexico. In those areas, Franciscan missions have been the first mechanism for either religious and secular colonization within the 17th century.
By 1700, there have been merely approximately 1,000 Spaniards in Florida and 3,000 in New Mexico; the rookies depended on Indians for power converts, employees, buying and selling companions, and armed forces allies. yet, the Spaniards' very presence between indigenous peoples created epidemiological, political, fabric, and monetary crises in local communities.
Natives' reactions in New Mexico and Florida different extensively yet they still sought to manage their very own destinies. a few teams embraced the conquerors' choices all alone phrases and a few rejected them completely. a few even fled or rebelled, as in Florida in 1656 and New Mexico in 1680. Sifting via Spanish colonial money owed and glossy archaeological and architectural investigations, Robert Galgano will pay equivalent recognition to the perspectives of the beginners and the natives whereas emphasizing the Franciscans' views over these of the Spanish political management.
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Additional resources for Feast of Souls: Indians and Spaniards in the Seventeenth-Century Missions of Florida and New Mexico
32 In Florida, one particular herb played a central role in several of the natives’ most important communal rituals. Cacina, the “black drink,” had medicinal, social, and political significance. Indians put the leaves of the yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria) in ceramic jars and roasted them over a fire. Then they broke the dried leaves, ground them, and poured water into the jar. They boiled the water and the steeped leaves made a tea that smelled like lye and looked like a frothy beer. 33 Its effects were dramatic.
At Christmas, Francis erected manger scenes in front of local churches, and in prayer he tried to imagine Jesus’s Different Paths 21 suffering on the cross. Focusing on Christ’s earthly existence highlighted his humanity and made God more comprehensible. The Son of God subtly changed from High-Priest and Arbiter of the Last Judgment to Jesus, son of Mary, who expressed human emotion and lived among the people, sharing in their joys and sorrows. 17 For their own edification and training, the Franciscans observed a starkly compact Rule that encouraged them to literally follow Jesus’s example.
30 Herbal remedies varied from simple exchanges of a medicine pouch for goods in kind, to complex rites that took days to perform. Medicine served diagnostic purposes, found lost items, strengthened Indians’ ability to conduct their daily tasks, and prepared them for special events. They were well acquainted with the applications and properties of a variety of herbs, roots, plants, powders, and therapeutic concoctions. 32 In Florida, one particular herb played a central role in several of the natives’ most important communal rituals.