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By Ralf Emmers

During this publication, Emmers addresses the foremost query: to what volume may possibly the stability of energy play an element in such cooperative defense preparations and within the calculations of the individuals of ASEAN and the paintings? He investigates the function of the ability stability in distinctive examinations of the construction of the discussion board, ASEAN's reaction to the Indochina clash and the South China sea dispute.

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Extra info for Cooperative Security and the Balance of Power in ASEAN and the ARF (Politics in Asia)

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Differences still existed among the member states. Singapore, Indonesia and Malaysia supported Myanmar’s entry into the Association and criticized Western intervention. Thailand and the Philippines were more concerned about the military regime and its lack of domestic reforms. Partly to avoid a hazardous precedent, the decision was taken to accept Myanmar with Laos and Cambodia in July 1997. Myanmar’s admission was also influenced by geopolitical calculations; namely the need to reduce China’s growing influence on Yangon (Rangoon).

40 Despite the rhetoric, the early years were still defined by inter-state tensions and disputes. Nevertheless, this period was important for the institutional experience of the Association. In particular, credit needs to be given to the development of dialogue that gradually led to a ‘habit of cooperation’. 41 18 Cooperative security: ASEAN and the ARF The first summit of the ASEAN heads of state and government came in the wake of the new political environment that emanated from the US withdrawal from South Vietnam in 1973 and the communist take-over of Phnom Penh and Saigon in April 1975 and Laos by the end of the same year.

In short, ASEAN’s structure demonstrated the attention given to regional relations. This focus had been inherited from ASA. Military cooperation was rejected at the outset due to several factors. The Association hoped to avoid hostile Vietnamese and Chinese reactions by denying an official anti-communist position. During the inaugural meeting, Singapore’s Foreign Minister S. 21 That reluctance also resulted from deep intra-mural differences. Feelings of mistrust and territorial disputes affected most bilateral relations and the members did not share a common security perspective or threat perception.

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