By Galen Wood Ewing
Meant for either the amateur undefined, this article goals to strategy issues of presently to be had instruments and techniques within the smooth analytical chemistry area. It covers all fields from uncomplicated conception and ideas of analytical chemistry to instrumentation type, layout and buying. This version comprises info on X-ray tools and research, capillary electrophoresis, infrared and Raman procedure comparisons, and extra.
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The experimenter who wants to make efficient use of the power of a computer must stand ready to invest considerable time in the understanding of the way in which many apparently unrelated domains can and will interact. To bring some order into the matter we will subdivide this chapter into a number of topics: Operating system resource management file management user interface User terminal text and graphic interaction Data transfer and communication Data transfer hardware RS232, RS422/423/449, IEEE488/GPIB ETHERNET networks Page 4 protocol models and standards shared printers and mass storage devices compatibility between data representations Programming considerations languages, tools and applications Signal processing and signal/noise discrimination averaging and filtering correlation transforms Signal conversion Analog-Digital Converters Track/Hold amplifiers Sampling and sampling artifacts Digital-Analog Converters Artificial intelligence: the delegation of decision authority Literature and suggestions for further reading Operating Systems For a chapter on computers it is only fitting that the discussion start with the part that makes a computer functional and usable: its operating system.
Even the interconnection of various parts of an experiment may now be defined graphically with the help of a graphics editor that allows one to draw connections between icons of the various devices that are known to the system. Page 2 As memory costs have decreased, the size of software packages has grown to fill the larger memories and disks of today's machines. What used to be a handful of small utilities dedicated to specific tasks may now be combined into a single multi-purpose package. For some, this may be seen as an advantage; for others, the inevitable increase in complexity of that single ambitious package may appear to be a drawback.
Especially in the laboratory environment we will find that the underlying structure may be far more important than the user interface. On the other hand one should note that a poorly designed user interface can make even a good operating system difficult to use. A short description of the structure and purpose of an operating system is in order, so that its services can be put in proper perspective. It is useful to see an operating system primarily as a resource manager. Resources in this context include the CPU, available memory, mass storage devices, available terminals, printers and communication lines, and any input-and output-ports that may be used to connect the system to various pieces of laboratory equipment.