By Shanchi Peng; Richard A Robison

Many trilobite species of the order Agnostida have brief stratigraphic levels and worldwide distribution in open-marine deposits. they're such a lot considerable and so much diversified from in regards to the heart center Cambrian to the center higher Cambrian the place they're proving to be first-class biostratigraphic indices. We describe surprisingly wealthy agnostoid faunas of that age from thick, well-exposed sections, one close to Paibi and one close to Wangcun, in northwestern Hunan Province, China. All collections are from the Huaqiao Formation, the definition of that's revised and its stratigraphic content material is extended. many of the fossils are good preserved in darkish, laminated, argillaceous carbonates that have been deposited in decrease slope environments. those are assigned to seventy six species and 33 genera. New species defined are Agnostus? babcocki, Ammagnostus? cryptus, Ammagnostus histus, Ammagnostus hunanensis, Ammagnostus wangcunensis, Baltagnostus? ambonus, Linguagnostus stenus, Lisogoragnostus hybus, Lisogoragnostus mictus, and Utagnostus songae. Species reassigned in a brand new standard mix are Ammagnostus laiwuensis (Lorenz, 1906), Glaberagnostus? cicer (Tullberg, 1880), Kormagnostus minutus (Schrank, 1975), and Pseudophalacroma scanense (Westergård, 1946). The subfamily Ammagnostinae Öpik, 1967, is increased to relatives rank.  Read more...

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Serruys, The Mongols and Ming China, p. 141. Nicholas Poppe, Introduction to Altaic linguistics (Wiesbaden, 1965), pp. 160–1. Examples of other terms taken from Mongolian: baturu (Mo. Bagatur) “hero,” jargu¯ci (Mo. jarguci) “judge,” taiji (Mo. tayiji) “male member of the family of Chinggis khan, a noble,” hiya (Mo. kiya) “guard,” baksi (Mo. bag si) “teacher, literary advisor to the ruler,” and elcin (Mo. ” Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 20 gertraude roth li Like the Mongols and the Turks, the Jurchens did not observe a law of primogeniture or other regular principles of succession.

Whether hala or muku¯n, members of Jurchen clans shared a consciousness of a common ancestor and were led by a head man (muku¯nda). Not all clan members were blood related. If households moved away, they might either join another existing subclan or establish a new one, in which case they would no longer consider themselves related to the earlier lineage. Thus, the Odoli and Huligai, who recognized a common ancestor, could marry into each other’s clan after their subdivision. Later, Möngke Temür’s clan divided into two sections, one under Fanca, the other under Cungsˇan.

And, I would add, the groups also tended to minimize their risks by compromising. Taking Ch’ü T’ung-tsu’s scholarly conclusion and speculatively extending it to all aspects of the period covered in this volume, we might see that the Ch’ing success, involving not only imperial leadership but the complicity of all elite groups as well, was a function of working out ways to maintain the diverse interests in something approximating a balanced tension, which required more or less continuous, expedient, ad hoc adjustments.

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