By Carole A. Warnes
Courses working towards physicians within the sensible facets of the way to diagnose and deal with sufferers with congenital middle diseaseReviews the commonest congenital cardiac anomalies visible in practiceFocuses on either scientific review and diagnostic imaging modalities in addition to functional administration matters, in addition to while to refer sufferers to tertiary care centresEach bankruptcy is preceded by means of a case examine to exemplify the problems that could be hard in functional administration
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Extra info for Adult Congenital Heart Disease (American Heart Association Clinical Series)
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Paediatric Cardiology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1978:477–90. 12. Piccoli GP, Wilkinson JL, Macartney FJ, et al. Morphology and classification of complete atrioventricular defects. Br Heart J 1979;42:633–9. 13. Aubert S, Henaine R, Raisky O, et al. Atypical forms of isolated partial atrioventricular septal defect increase the risk of initial valve replacement and reoperation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2005;28:223–8. 14. Bergin ML, Warnes CA, Tajik AJ, Danielson GK. Partial atrioventricular canal defect: Long-term follow-up after initial repair in patients >40 years old.
The basal parasternal short-axis plane is typically the best twodimensional echocardiographic view to image the pulmonic valve and right ventricular outflow tract (Fig. 3). If imaging is inadequate in this plane, the subcostal short axis is an additional view that is often useful. Doppler echocardiography allows for measurement of the PS gradient using the modified Bernoulli equation. Continuous wave Doppler is useful to obtain the peak instantaneous Fig. 3 Thickened pulmonary valve leaflets seen by echocardiography in parasternal short-axis view of right ventricular outflow tract.