By Giamila Fantuzzi
This ebook offers a accomplished survey of adipose tissue, its physiological capabilities, and its function in disorder. the quantity spans the total variety of adipose tissue stories, from uncomplicated anatomical and physiological examine to epidemiology and medical experiences. Groundbreaking contemporary reports are included into conventional types of adipose tissue houses. an outline of the function of macrophages in weight problems and metabolism in incorporated.
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Extra info for Adipose Tissue and Adipokines in Health and Disease (Nutrition & Health)
Treatment with G3AR agonists induces development of brown adipocytes in white areas of the adipose organ. This is accompanied by the appearance of cells with morphological characteristics intermediate between white and brown adipocytes and quite different from those of brown adipocyte precursors. These cells show a multilocular lipid depot, usually with a predominant central vacuole and numerous small ones at the periphery of the cell. Their mitochondria are more numerous than in white adipocytes, but less numerous than in brown adipocytes.
It is easy to understand that the relationship between surface and volume of the human body is quite different from that of small mammals; therefore, human thermodispersion is much lower than that in rodents. This alone justifies a reduced need for brown adipose tissue in adult humans. Newborns have a different surface/volume relationship and a considerable amount of brown adipose tissue is present at that age. Nevertheless, brown adipocytes dispersed among white adipocytes have been described in several histological studies (including studies showing the presence of UCP1) (75,76) Chapter 1 / The Adipose Organ 17 and in our own studies of a case series of 100 consecutive perirenal biopsies of adult humans, brown adipocytes were found in 24% of cases (all ages) and in 50% of cases after exclusion of patients over 50 yr old (unpublished data).
In vitro studies have confirmed the ultrastructure of the developmental steps described in vivo and demonstrated the importance of noradrenaline for mitochondriogenesis (33–36). 3. Reversible Transdifferentiation of White Adipocytes Into Brown Adipocytes Transdifferentiation is a process of direct transformation of a differentiated cell into another cell type with different morphology and physiology. We are convinced that a significant amount of adipocytes in the adipose organ can reciprocally transdifferentiate.