By Andreas Faludi (Eds.)
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Additional info for A Reader in Planning Theory
Nevertheless, we can state standards for such endeavors, whether conducted in contemporary handicraft manner or using more sophisticated techniques which may develop. 1. We seek to identify a set of means so related to the given purpose as to include the one that is "best". Thus, the set of alternatives identified by a means-identification effort must not omit one (identified by some other method than that used) clearly superior to the one selected. 2. T h e alternatives identified must possess certain features of measurability.
This change occurred first in the United States, but it is now almost universal. With respect to this phenomenon, the three papers take up different positions. Ruth Glass and Donald L. Foley give a critical historical and institutional analysis of British planning more than a decade after the spate of post-war planning legislation. Criticisms similar to these stimulated changes taking place, initially in the United States. Melvin Webber's paper in turn was written when the situation there was ripe for new ideas to come to fruition.
One alternative may then be identified as superior to others: that is, optimal by preestablished criteria. However, this last step should be taken only if an explicit delegation of power has been made. In all cases there is a clear a * The one exception might be some classes of programming: given a set of restrictive constraints, all feasible solutions are implicitly identified. However, two types of problems arise with programming. Programming is not operational or even relevant to many aspects of planning.