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By R.R.A. Issa

The development firm is being reworked by means of visible modelling. instruments corresponding to 3D/4D CAD and digital fact at the moment are in frequent use in building. This booklet is either a survey of the adjustments being made in perform and a close consultant to destiny instructions for learn and improvement. This booklet incorporates a variety of certain case reports and examples, making it a very good source for practitioners, researchers, and scholars trying to comprehend the main points of the way new instruments and strategies are utilized in a company context.

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For example, the steel came back from the fabricator with all the bolts and holes modeled, but we did not need this information for the 4D models the GC wanted to create. Figures 25 to 27 show steel handled at two levels of detail for this project. The resolution of certain situations requires more detail, the resolution of others less detail. SCHEDULE ISSUES Inconsistencies: Just as the geometry can be inconsistent with the design intent, the schedule can also contain inconsistencies. For example, the schedule may call for a Concrete Masonary Unit (CMU) wall, whereas the geometry models a cast in 26 M.

Figure 29. AHU (shown in red) scheduled too late. Figure 30. Scaffolds collide. one contract. The 4D models supported the discovery of these (and many similar issues) during planning, well before construction started. Note though, that because of the physical and temporal interrelationships between many scopes of work an early detection of potential problems is essential to revise the design or schedule economically. For example, even though the AHU was not scheduled to be installed Benefits of 3D and 4D models 29 Figure 31.

16). After completing the virtual construction they strengthened their plan-reading skills and their ability to visualize a three-dimensional object from two-dimensional plans. This suggests they could use hand-drawings and computer images to spontaneously visualize the construction. And perhaps most importantly they would be able to review the entire process to understand the context of their actions and how a similar pre-construction effort might be used for other projects. PRE-CONSTRUCTION AS PRE-COMMUNICATIONS In an informal market study, the notion that buildings can be “pre-constructed” on a computer from a set of construction documents using the same labor and materials that would be used on an actual job site seemed to stir the interest of construction managers (Fukai, 1996a).

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